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Time Value of Money: Using Present Value Factors

Time Value of Money:  Using Present Value Factors

Introduction

The time value of money equation is:

0 = PV + PMT * PVAF + FV * PVSF

where

PVAF = present value of annuity factor = Σ( (1 + i%)^(-k), k, 1, n )
PVSF = present value of single factor = (1 + i%)^-n
n = number of payments
i% = periodic interest rate (as a decimal)

The cash flow convention is maintained with this model.  Cash outflows (payments) are negative, cash inflows (receipts) are positive.

Solving for Payment (PMT)

0 = PV + PMT * PVAF + FV * PVSF
-PMT * PVAF = PV + FV * PVSF
-PMT = (PV + FV * PVSF) / PVAF
PMT = -(PV + FV * PVSF) / PVAF

Example

PV = $50,000.00
FV = -$10,000.00
n = 60  (5 years of monthly payments)
i% = 0.05/12

PVAF = 52.99071
PVSF = 0.77921

PMT = -(50000 – 10000 * 0.77921) / 52.99071 = -796.5150873
(cash payment of $796.52)

Solving for Future Value (FV)

0 = PV + PMT * PVAF + FV * PVSF
-FV * PVSF = PV + PMT * PVAF
FV = -( PV + PMT * PVAF ) / PVSF

Example

PV = -$1,000.00
PMT = -$250.00
n = 60  (5 years of monthly payments)
i% = 0.05/12

PVAF = 52.99071
PVSF = 0.77921

FV = -( -1000 – 250 * 52.99071) / 0.77921 = 18284.7724
(future value of deposit $18,284.77)

We can use this method with any calculator.  A partial present value factor table, one for single payment, and one for annuity, is presented below.

Source:

“HP 17BII Financial Calculator Owner’s Manual”  Edition 1  Hewlett Packard.  Corvallis, OR.  December 1989.

Have fun,

Eddie

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